Kubernetes学习之路(六)之创建K8S应用

By | 2021年7月6日
目录
[隐藏]
  • 一、Deployment的概念

K8S本身并不提供网络的功能,所以需要借助第三方网络插件进行部署K8S中的网络,以打通各个节点中容器的互通。
POD,是K8S中的一个逻辑概念,K8S管理的是POD,一个POD中包含多个容器,容器之间通过localhost互通。而POD需要ip地址。每个POD都有一个标签

POD–>RC–>RS–>Deployment (发展历程)

Deployment,表示用户对K8S集群的一次更新操作。Deployment是一个比RS应用模式更广的API对象。用于保证Pod的副本的数量。

可以是创建一个新的服务,更新一个新的服务,也可以是滚动升级一个服务。滚动升级一个服务。实际是创建一个新的RS,然后将新的RS中副本数增加到理想状态,将旧的RS中的副本数减小到0的复合操作; 这样的一个复合操作用一个RS是不太好描述的,所以用一个更通用的Deployment来描述。

RC、RS和Deployment只是保证了支撑服务的POD数量,但是没有解决如何访问这些服务的问题。一个POD只是一个运行服务的实例,随时可以能在一个节点上停止,在另一个节点以一个新的IP启动一个新的POD,因此不能以确定的IP和端口号提供服务。

要稳定地提供服务需要服务发现和负载均衡能力。服务发现完成的工作,是针对客户端访问的服务,找到对应的后端服务实例。

在K8S的集中当中,客户端需要访问的服务就是Service对象。每个Service会对应一个集群内部有效的虚拟IP,集群内部通过虚拟IP访问一个服务。

  • 二、创建K8S的第一个应用

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl run net-test --image=alpine --replicas=2 sleep 36000  #创建名称为net-test的应用,镜像指定为alpine,副本数为2个
deployment.apps "net-test" created
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod -o wide  #查看pod的状态信息,此时是API Server从etcd中读取这些数据
NAME                        READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE       IP          NODE
net-test-7b949fc785-2v2qz   1/1       Running             0          56s       10.2.87.2   192.168.56.120
net-test-7b949fc785-6nrhm   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          56s       <none>      192.168.56.130
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get deployment net-test
NAME       DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
net-test   2         2         2            2           22h
kubectl get deployment命令可以查看net-test的状态,输出显示两个副本正常运行。还可以在创建的过程中,通过kubectl describe deployment net-test了解详细的信息。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl describe deployment net-test
Name:                   net-test
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Thu, 16 Aug 2018 15:41:29 +0800
Labels:                 run=net-test
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision=1
Selector:               run=net-test
Replicas:               2 desired | 2 updated | 2 total | 2 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  1 max unavailable, 1 max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  run=net-test
  Containers:
   net-test:
    Image:      alpine
    Port:       <none>
    Host Port:  <none>
    Args:
      sleep
      360000
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
  Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   net-test-5767cb94df (2/2 replicas created)
Events:          <none>

Events是Deployment的日志,记录整个RelicaSet的启动过程,从上面的创建过程,可以看到Deployment是通过ReplicaSet来管理Pod。

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get replicaset  #获取副本集信息
NAME                          DESIRED   CURRENT   READY     AGE
net-test-5767cb94df           2         2         2         23h

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl describe replicaset net-test-5767cb94df  #查看副本集的详细信息
Name:           net-test-5767cb94df
Namespace:      default
Selector:       pod-template-hash=1323765089,run=net-test
Labels:         pod-template-hash=1323765089
                run=net-test
Annotations:    deployment.kubernetes.io/desired-replicas=2
                deployment.kubernetes.io/max-replicas=3
                deployment.kubernetes.io/revision=1
Controlled By:  Deployment/net-test  #指明ReplicaSet是由Deployment net-test创建
Replicas:       2 current / 2 desired
Pods Status:    3 Running / 0 Waiting / 0 Succeeded / 0 Failed
Pod Template:
  Labels:  pod-template-hash=1323765089
           run=net-test
  Containers:
   net-test:
    Image:      alpine
    Port:       <none>
    Host Port:  <none>
    Args:
      sleep
      360000
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Events:           <none>  #Events可以查看到两个副本Pod的创建过程

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod  #获取Pod信息,可以看到2个副本都处于Running状态
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running   0          22h
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running   0          23h

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl describe pod net-test-5767cb94df-djt98 #查看pod的详细信息
Name:           net-test-5767cb94df-djt98
Namespace:      default
Node:           192.168.56.13/192.168.56.13
Start Time:     Thu, 16 Aug 2018 15:53:00 +0800
Labels:         pod-template-hash=1323765089
                run=net-test
Annotations:    <none>
Status:         Running
IP:             10.2.73.3
Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/net-test-5767cb94df
Containers:
  net-test:
    Container ID:  docker://c8e267326ed80f3cbe8111377c74dd1f016beaef513196b941165e180a5d5733
    Image:         alpine
    Image ID:      docker-pullable://alpine@sha256:7043076348bf5040220df6ad703798fd8593a0918d06d3ce30c6c93be117e430
    Port:          <none>
    Host Port:     <none>
    Args:
      sleep
      360000
    State:          Running
      Started:      Thu, 16 Aug 2018 15:53:06 +0800
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-mnqx5 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type           Status
  Initialized    True 
  Ready          True 
  PodScheduled   True 
Volumes:
  default-token-mnqx5:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-mnqx5
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     <none>
Events:          <none>

Controlled By 指明此 Pod 是由 ReplicaSet/net-test-5767cb94df 创建。Events 记录了 Pod 的启动过程。如果操作失败(比如 image 不存在),也能在这里查看到原因。

总结创建的过程:

(1)用户通过kubectl创建Deployment

(2)Deployment创建ReplicaSet

(3)ReplicaSet创建Pod

如图:

  • 三、K8S创建资源的两种方式

Kubernetes 支持两种方式创建资源:

(1)用kubectl命令直接创建,在命令行中通过参数指定资源的属性。此方式简单直观,比较适合临时测试或实验使用。

kubectl run net-test --image=alpine --replicas=2 sleep 36000

(2)通过配置文件和kubectl create创建。在配置文件中描述了应用的信息和需要达到的预期状态。

kubectl create -f nginx-deployment.yaml
  • 四、以Deployment YAML方式创建Nginx服务

  • 1、创建deployment
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim nginx-deployment.yaml  #使用yaml的方式进行创建应用
apiVersion: apps/v1  #apiVersion是当前配置格式的版本
kind: Deployment    #kind是要创建的资源类型,这里是Deploymnet
metadata:        #metadata是该资源的元数据,name是必须的元数据项
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:          #spec部分是该Deployment的规则说明
  replicas: 3      #relicas指定副本数量,默认为1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template:      #template定义Pod的模板,这是配置的重要部分
    metadata:      #metadata定义Pod的元数据,至少要顶一个label,label的key和value可以任意指定
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:       #spec描述的是Pod的规则,此部分定义pod中每一个容器的属性,name和image是必需的
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx:1.13.12
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl create -f nginx-deployment.yaml #创建nginx-deployment应用
deployment.apps "nginx-deployment" created
  • 2、查看deployment
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get deployment
NAME               DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
net-test           2         2         2            2           32m
nginx-deployment   3         3         3            0           10s
   
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl describe deployment nginx-deployment    #查看deployment详情
Name:                   nginx-deployment
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Thu, 16 Aug 2018 16:13:37 +0800
Labels:                 app=nginx
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision=1
Selector:               app=nginx
Replicas:               3 desired | 3 updated | 3 total | 0 available | 3 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  app=nginx
  Containers:
   nginx:
    Image:        nginx:1.13.12
    Port:         80/TCP
    Host Port:    0/TCP
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Available      False   MinimumReplicasUnavailable
  Progressing    True    ReplicaSetUpdated
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb (3/3 replicas created)
Events:
  Type    Reason             Age   From                   Message
  ----    ------             ----  ----                   -------
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  1m    deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb to 3
  • 3、查看Pod
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod    #查看pod在状态,正在创建中,此时应该正在拉取镜像
NAME                                READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running             0          22m
net-test-5767cb94df-hcwv7           1/1       Unknown             0          34m
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running             0          34m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-dmc22   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          2m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-fd8xm   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          2m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-sc8sh   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          2m
   
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl describe pod nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-dmc22  #查看具体某个pod的状态信息
   
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod -o wide  #创建成功,状态为Running
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP          NODE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running   0          24m       10.2.73.3   192.168.56.13
net-test-5767cb94df-hcwv7           1/1       Unknown   0          36m       10.2.10.2   192.168.56.12
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running   0          36m       10.2.73.2   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-dmc22   1/1       Running   0          4m        10.2.73.6   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-fd8xm   1/1       Running   0          4m        10.2.73.4   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-sc8sh   1/1       Running   0          4m        10.2.73.5   192.168.56.13

Deployment、ReplicaSet、Pod 都已经就绪。如果要删除这些资源,执行 kubectl delete deployment nginx-deployment 或者 kubectl delete -f nginx-deployment.yaml

  • 4、测试Pod访问
[root@linux-node1 ~]# curl --head http://10.2.73.6
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.13.12
Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:18:14 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 16:01:09 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5acb8e45-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
  • 5、更新Deployment
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl set image deployment/nginx-deployment nginx=nginx:1.15.2 --record    #nginx的版本升级,由1.13.2升级为1.15.2,记录需要加参数--record
deployment.apps "nginx-deployment" image updated
   
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get deployment -o wide  #查看更新后的deployment,可以看到当前4个副本,说明还在滚动升级中
NAME               DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE       CONTAINERS   IMAGES         SELECTOR
net-test           2         2         2            2           39m       net-test     alpine         run=net-test
nginx-deployment   3         4         1            3           6m        nginx        nginx:1.15.2   app=nginx
  • 6、查看更新历史
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl rollout history deployment/nginx-deployment #查看更新历史记录
deployments "nginx-deployment"
REVISION  CHANGE-CAUSE
1         <none>
2         kubectl set image deployment/nginx-deployment nginx=nginx:1.15.2 --record=true
  • 7、查看具体某一个版本的升级历史
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl rollout history deployment/nginx-deployment --revision=1
deployments "nginx-deployment" with revision #1
Pod Template:
  Labels:    app=nginx
    pod-template-hash=2701970576
  Containers:
   nginx:
    Image:    nginx:1.13.12
    Port:    80/TCP
    Host Port:    0/TCP
    Environment:    <none>
    Mounts:    <none>
  Volumes:    <none>
  • 8、查看更新后的Deployment,并进行访问
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod -o wide
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP          NODE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running   0          30m       10.2.73.3   192.168.56.13
net-test-5767cb94df-hcwv7           1/1       Unknown   0          42m       10.2.10.2   192.168.56.12
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running   0          42m       10.2.73.2   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-64749d4b59-djttr   1/1       Running   0          37s       10.2.73.8   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-64749d4b59-jp7fw   1/1       Running   0          3m        10.2.73.7   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-64749d4b59-q4fsn   1/1       Running   0          33s       10.2.73.9   192.168.56.13
[root@linux-node1 ~]# curl --head http://10.2.73.7
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.15.2  #版本已经升级为1.15.2
Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:24:09 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 13:02:29 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5b572365-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
  • 9、快速回滚到上一个版本
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl rollout undo deployment/nginx-deployment   #回滚上一个版本
deployment.apps "nginx-deployment"    
   
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod -o wide
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP           NODE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running   0          32m       10.2.73.3    192.168.56.13
net-test-5767cb94df-hcwv7           1/1       Unknown   0          43m       10.2.10.2    192.168.56.12
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running   0          43m       10.2.73.2    192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-b9h84   1/1       Running   0          24s       10.2.73.11   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-g4mrg   1/1       Running   0          26s       10.2.73.10   192.168.56.13
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-k29kq   1/1       Running   0          21s       10.2.73.12   192.168.56.13
[root@linux-node1 ~]# curl --head http://10.2.73.10
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.13.12
Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:25:35 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 16:01:09 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5acb8e45-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

回滚完成,每一次更新或者回滚ip都会变化,所以需要通过vip进行访问,这就引入了service   
  • 10、使用service的vip进行访问应用
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim nginx-service.yaml  #使用yaml方式创建service
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: nginx-service
spec:
  selector:
    app: nginx
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl create -f nginx-service.yaml   #创建service
service "nginx-service" created

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get service
NAME            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes      ClusterIP   10.1.0.1       <none>        443/TCP   4h
nginx-service   ClusterIP   10.1.213.126   <none>        80/TCP    15s  #这个就是vip

[root@linux-node2 ~]# curl --head http://10.1.213.126  #在node2节点上进行访问vip测试,在node1上无法访问是因为没有安装kube-proxy导致无法访问
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.13.12
Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:30:08 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Last-Modified: Mon, 09 Apr 2018 16:01:09 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
ETag: "5acb8e45-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

[root@linux-node2 ~]# ipvsadm -Ln  
IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
TCP  10.1.0.1:443 rr persistent 10800
  -> 192.168.56.11:6443           Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.1.213.126:80 rr
  -> 10.2.73.10:80                Masq    1      0          1         
  -> 10.2.73.11:80                Masq    1      0          1         
  -> 10.2.73.12:80                Masq    1      0          0   

查看LVS状态可以看到,当访问VIP:10.1.213.126时,会进行负载均衡到各个pod   
  • 11、扩容到5个节点
[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl scale deployment nginx-deployment --replicas 5  #对应用的副本数进行扩容,直接指定副本数为5
deployment.extensions "nginx-deployment" scaled

[root@linux-node1 ~]# kubectl get pod  #查看pod状态,可以看到已经增加到5个副本
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
net-test-5767cb94df-djt98           1/1       Running   0          38m
net-test-5767cb94df-hcwv7           1/1       Unknown   0          50m
net-test-5767cb94df-zb8m4           1/1       Running   0          50m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-b9h84   1/1       Running   0          6m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-g4mrg   1/1       Running   0          7m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-k29kq   1/1       Running   0          6m
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-n9qkx   1/1       Running   0          24s
nginx-deployment-6c45fc49cb-xpx9s   1/1       Running   0          24s

[root@linux-node2 ~]# ipvsadm -Ln
IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
TCP  10.1.0.1:443 rr persistent 10800
  -> 192.168.56.11:6443           Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.1.213.126:80 rr
  -> 10.2.73.10:80                Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.2.73.11:80                Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.2.73.12:80                Masq    1      0          1         
  -> 10.2.73.13:80                Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.2.73.14:80                Masq    1      0          0

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