Kubernetes学习之路(八)之Kubeadm部署集群

By | 2021年7月6日
目录
[隐藏]

一、环境说明

节点名称 ip地址 部署说明 Pod 网段 Service网段 系统说明
k8s-master 192.168.56.11 docker、kubeadm、kubectl、kubelet
10.244.0.0/16
10.96.0.0/12
Centos 7.4
k8s-node01 192.168.56.12 docker、kubeadm、kubelet
10.244.0.0/16
10.96.0.0/12
Centos 7.4
k8s-node02 192.168.56.13 docker、kubeadm、kubelet
10.244.0.0/16
10.96.0.0/12
Centos 7.4

 

(1)配置源

[root@k8s-master ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/

配置阿里云的源:https://opsx.alibaba.com/mirror

[root@k8s-master yum.repos.d]# wget https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo  #配置dokcer源

[root@k8s-master ~]# cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo  #配置kubernetes源
> [kubernetes]
> name=Kubernetes
> baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
> enabled=1
> gpgcheck=1
> repo_gpgcheck=1
> gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
> EOF

[root@k8s-master yum.repos.d]# yum repolist #查看可用源

将源拷贝到node01和node02节点

[root@k8s-master yum.repos.d]# scp kubernetes.repo docker-ce.repo k8s-node1:/etc/yum.repos.d/
kubernetes.repo                         100%  276   276.1KB/s   00:00    
docker-ce.repo                          100% 2640     1.7MB/s   00:00    
[root@k8s-master yum.repos.d]# scp kubernetes.repo docker-ce.repo k8s-node2:/etc/yum.repos.d/
kubernetes.repo                         100%  276   226.9KB/s   00:00    
docker-ce.repo                          100% 2640     1.7MB/s   00:00

(2)安装docker、kubelet、kubeadm、还有命令行工具kubectl

[root@k8s-master yum.repos.d]# yum install -y docker-ce kubelet kubeadm kubectl 
[root@k8s-master ~]# systemctl start docker
[root@k8s-master ~]# systemctl enable docker

启动docker,docker需要到自动到docker仓库中所依赖的镜像文件,这些镜像文件会因为在国外仓库而下载无法完成,所以最好预先下载镜像文件,kubeadm也可以支持本地私有仓库进行获取镜像文件。

(3)预先下载镜像

在master节点上使用docker pull拉取镜像,再通过tag打标签
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-scheduler:v1.11.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-scheduler:v1.11.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.11.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-controller-manager:v1.11.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-controller-manager:v1.11.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.11.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-apiserver-amd64:v1.11.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-apiserver-amd64:v1.11.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.11.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-etcd:3.2.18
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-etcd:3.2.18 k8s.gcr.io/etcd-amd64:3.2.18
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-coredns:1.1.3
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-coredns:1.1.3 k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.1.3
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-pause:3.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-pause:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-s390x
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-s390x quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-s390x
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-ppc64le
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-ppc64le quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-ppc64l
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-arm
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-arm quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-arm
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64

node节点上拉取的镜像
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-pause:3.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-pause:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.11.1
docker pull xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker tag xiyangxixia/k8s-flannel:v0.10.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64

(4)kubeadm初始化集群

[root@k8s-master ~]# vim /etc/sysconfig/kubelet   #修改kubelet禁止提示swap警告
KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS="--fail-swap-on=false" #如果配置了swap不然提示出错信息
更改kubelet配置,不提示swap警告信息,最好关闭swap
[root@k8s-master ~]# swapoff -a  #关闭swap

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=v1.11.1 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --service-cidr=10.96.0.0/12 --ignore-preflight-errors=Swap     #初始化 
[init] using Kubernetes version: v1.11.1
[preflight] running pre-flight checks
I0821 18:14:22.223765   18053 kernel_validator.go:81] Validating kernel version
I0821 18:14:22.223894   18053 kernel_validator.go:96] Validating kernel config
    [WARNING SystemVerification]: docker version is greater than the most recently validated version. Docker version: 18.06.0-ce. Max validated version: 17.03
[preflight/images] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight/images] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight/images] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[preflight] Activating the kubelet service
[certificates] Generated ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver certificate and key.
[certificates] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 192.168.56.11]
[certificates] Generated apiserver-kubelet-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated sa key and public key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/server certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master localhost] and IPs [127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certificates] Generated etcd/peer certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master localhost] and IPs [192.168.56.11 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certificates] Generated etcd/healthcheck-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver-etcd-client certificate and key.
[certificates] valid certificates and keys now exist in "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-apiserver to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-controller-manager to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager.yaml"
[controlplane] wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-scheduler to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler.yaml"
[etcd] Wrote Static Pod manifest for a local etcd instance to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.yaml"
[init] waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as Static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests" 
[init] this might take a minute or longer if the control plane images have to be pulled
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 51.033696 seconds
[uploadconfig] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.11" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[markmaster] Marking the node k8s-master as master by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[markmaster] Marking the node k8s-master as master by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[patchnode] Uploading the CRI Socket information "/var/run/dockershim.sock" to the Node API object "k8s-master" as an annotation
[bootstraptoken] using token: dx7mko.j2ug1lqjra5bf6p2
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstraptoken] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstraptoken] creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

  kubeadm join 192.168.56.11:6443 --token dx7mko.j2ug1lqjra5bf6p2 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:93fe958796db44dcc23764cb8d9b6a2e67bead072e51a3d4d3c2d36b5d1007cf

如果是普通用户部署,要使用kubectl,需要配置kubectl的环境变量,这些命令也是kubeadm init输出的一部分:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

如果是使用root用户部署,可以使用export进行定义环境变量

[root@k8s-master ~]# export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

此处也需要记录输出的kubeadm join命令,后面的node节点加入到集群就需要用到此命令:

kubeadm join 192.168.56.11:6443 --token dx7mko.j2ug1lqjra5bf6p2 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:93fe958796db44dcc23764cb8d9b6a2e67bead072e51a3d4d3c2d36b5d1007cf

该令牌用于主节点和加入节点之间的相互认证。这里包含的令牌是秘密的。保持安全,因为拥有此令牌的任何人都可以向集群添加经过身份验证的节点。可以使用该kubeadm token命令列出,创建和删除这些令牌。到此,集群的初始化已经完成,可以使用kubectl get cs进行查看集群的健康状态信息:

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                   
scheduler            Healthy   ok                   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS     ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master   NotReady   master    43m       v1.11.2

从上面的结果可以看到,master的组件controller-manager、scheduler、etcd都处于正常状态。那么apiserver到哪去了?要知道kubectl是通过apiserver进行通信,从而在etcd中获取到集群的状态信息,所以可以获取到集群的状态信息,即表示apiserver是处于正常运行的状态。使用kubectl get node获取节点信息,可以看到master节点的状态是NotReady,这是因为还没有部署好Pod网络。

(5)安装网络插件CNI

安装Pod网络插件,用于保证Pod之间的相互通信。在每个集群当中只能有一个Pod网络,在部署flannel之前需要更改的内核参数将桥接的IPv4的流量进行转发给iptables链,这是CNI插件的运行的前提要求。

[root@k8s-master ~]# cat /proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-iptables
1
[root@k8s-master ~]# cat /proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-ip6tables
1
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/c5d10c8/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
serviceaccount/flannel created
configmap/kube-flannel-cfg created
daemonset.extensions/kube-flannel-ds created

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node  #再查看master节点的状态信息,就是已经是Ready状态了
NAME         STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master   Ready     master    3h        v1.11.2

 (6)node01节点加入集群

[root@k8s-node01 ~]# yum install -y docker kubeadm kubelet
[root@k8s-node01 ~]# systemctl enable dokcer kubelet
[root@k8s-node01 ~]# systemctl start docker

这里需要提前拉取好镜像,如果docker配置了代理另说,按本次方法,提前拉取node节点所需要的镜像。

[root@k8s-node01 ~]# kubeadm join 192.168.56.11:6443 --token dx7mko.j2ug1lqjra5bf6p2 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:93fe958796db44dcc23764cb8d9b6a2e67bead072e51a3d4d3c2d36b5d1007cf

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node  
NAME         STATUS     ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master   Ready      master    7h        v1.11.2
k8s-node01   NotReady   <none>    3h        v1.11.2

加入集群后,查看节点状态信息,看到node01节点的状态为NotReady,是因为node01节点上还没有镜像或者是还在拉取镜像。等待拉取完镜像就会启动对应的Pod。

[root@k8s-node01 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                  COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
5502c29b43df        f0fad859c909           "/opt/bin/flanneld -…"   3 minutes ago       Up 3 minutes                            k8s_kube-flannel_kube-flannel-ds-pgpr7_kube-system_23dc27e3-a5af-11e8-84d2-000c2972dc1f_1
db1cc0a6fec4        d5c25579d0ff           "/usr/local/bin/kube…"   3 minutes ago       Up 3 minutes                            k8s_kube-proxy_kube-proxy-vxckf_kube-system_23dc0141-a5af-11e8-84d2-000c2972dc1f_0
bc54ad3399e8        k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1   "/pause"                 9 minutes ago       Up 9 minutes                            k8s_POD_kube-proxy-vxckf_kube-system_23dc0141-a5af-11e8-84d2-000c2972dc1f_0
cbfca066b71d        k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1   "/pause"                 10 minutes ago      Up 10 minutes                           k8s_POD_kube-flannel-ds-pgpr7_kube-system_23dc27e3-a5af-11e8-84d2-000c2972dc1f_0

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system -o wide
NAME                                 READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP              NODE
coredns-78fcdf6894-nmcmz             1/1       Running   0          1d        10.244.0.3      k8s-master
coredns-78fcdf6894-p5pfm             1/1       Running   0          1d        10.244.0.2      k8s-master
etcd-k8s-master                      1/1       Running   1          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master
kube-apiserver-k8s-master            1/1       Running   8          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master
kube-controller-manager-k8s-master   1/1       Running   4          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master
kube-flannel-ds-n5c86                1/1       Running   0          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master
kube-flannel-ds-pgpr7                1/1       Running   1          1d        192.168.56.12   k8s-node01
kube-proxy-rxlt7                     1/1       Running   1          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master
kube-proxy-vxckf                     1/1       Running   0          1d        192.168.56.12   k8s-node01
kube-scheduler-k8s-master            1/1       Running   2          1d        192.168.56.11   k8s-master

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node  #此时再查看状态已经变成Ready
NAME         STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master   Ready     master    1d        v1.11.2
k8s-node01   Ready     <none>    1d        v1.11.2

(7)增加集群的节点node02

[root@k8s-node02 ~]# yum install -y docker kubeadm kubelet
[root@k8s-node02 ~]# systemctl enable docker kubelet
[root@k8s-node02 ~]# systemctl start docker

同样预先拉取好node节点所需镜像,在此处犯错的还有,根据官方说明tonken的默认有效时间为24h,由于时间差,导致这里的token失效,可以使用kubeadm token list查看token,发现之前初始化的tonken已经失效了。

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubeadm token list
TOKEN                     TTL       EXPIRES                     USAGES                   DESCRIPTION   EXTRA GROUPS

dx7mko.j2ug1lqjra5bf6p2   <invalid>   2018-08-22T18:15:43-04:00   authentication,signing   The default bootstrap token generated by 'kubeadm init'.   system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token

那么此处需要重新生成token,生成的方法如下:

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubeadm token create
1vxhuq.qi11t7yq2wj20cpe

如果没有值–discovery-token-ca-cert-hash,可以通过在master节点上运行以下命令链来获取:

[root@k8s-master ~]# openssl x509 -pubkey -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der 2>/dev/null | \
   openssl dgst -sha256 -hex | sed 's/^.* //'

8cb2de97839780a412b93877f8507ad6c94f73add17d5d7058e91741c9d5ec78

此时,再运行kube join命令将node02加入到集群当中,此处的–discovery-token-ca-cert-hash依旧可以使用初始化时的证书

[root@k8s-node02 ~]# kubeadm join 192.168.56.11:6443 --token 1vxhuq.qi11t7yq2wj20cpe --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:93fe958796db44dcc23764cb8d9b6a2e67bead072e51a3d4d3c2d36b5d1007cf

[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
k8s-master   Ready     master    1d        v1.11.2
k8s-node01   Ready     <none>    1d        v1.11.2
k8s-node02   Ready     <none>    2h        v1.11.2

如果在集群安装过程中有遇到其他问题,可以使用以下命令进行重置:

$ kubeadm reset
$ ifconfig cni0 down && ip link delete cni0
$ ifconfig flannel.1 down && ip link delete flannel.1
$ rm -rf /var/lib/cni/

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