MySQL逻辑备份into outfile

By | 2019年12月3日
目录
[隐藏]

 into outfile

逻辑数据导出(备份)

用法:

select  xxx  into outfile '/path/file' from table_name; 

mysql>select * into outfile '/back/emp3.sql'  from emp;

 无论是什么存储引擎,本身是一种数据导出的方法,同时可以用来辅助备份,它可以对一个表的其中一列或者某几列做备份,如果是多列的话用逗号隔开

逻辑数据导入(恢复)

方法一:

load data local infile '/path/file'  into  table table_name;   

mysql> load data local infile '/back/emp.sql' into table emp;

 说明:该方法要求在编译数据库时要加上–enable-local-infile参数才可以使用

方法二:

# mysqlimport   dbname /path/filename

说明:filename 必须和数据库里面表名一样

综合示例

例一

# 创建表
mysql> create table t1(id int, name varchar(32));

# 插入数据
mysql> insert into t1 values(1,'haha'),(2,'wowo'),(3,'lili'),(4,'yoyo');

# 查看表
mysql> select * from t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | haha |
|    2 | wowo |
|    3 | lili |
|    4 | yoyo |
+------+------+

# 备份
mysql> select id, name into outfile '/tmp/back_mysql' from t1;
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)

查看备份

[root@Admin ~]# cat /tmp/back_mysql 
1    haha
2    wowo
3    lili
4    yoyo

删除数据并测试

 View Code

例二

创建一个表,把系统里的/etc/passwd导入数据库

create table password(
    username varchar(40),
    password char(5),
    uid int,
    gid int,
    comment varchar(30),
    homedir varchar(30),
    shell varchar(30));

处理passwd文件,将:替换成制表符

[root@Admin ~]# sed -n 's/:/\t/gp' /etc/passwd >/tmp/passwd

导入数据库

方法一:

mysql> load data local infile '/tmp/passwd' into table password;
mysql> select * from password;
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+
| username      | password | uid   | gid   | comment                      | homedir                | shell          |
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+
| root          | x        |     0 |     0 | root                         | /root                  | /bin/bash      |
| bin           | x        |     1 |     1 | bin                          | /bin                   | /sbin/nologin  |
| daemon        | x        |     2 |     2 | daemon                       | /sbin                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| adm           | x        |     3 |     4 | adm                          | /var/adm               | /sbin/nologin  |
| lp            | x        |     4 |     7 | lp                           | /var/spool/lpd         | /sbin/nologin  |
| sync          | x        |     5 |     0 | sync                         | /sbin                  | /bin/sync      |
| shutdown      | x        |     6 |     0 | shutdown                     | /sbin                  | /sbin/shutdown |
| halt          | x        |     7 |     0 | halt                         | /sbin                  | /sbin/halt     |
| mail          | x        |     8 |    12 | mail                         | /var/spool/mail        | /sbin/nologin  |
| uucp          | x        |    10 |    14 | uucp                         | /var/spool/uucp        | /sbin/nologin  |
| operator      | x        |    11 |     0 | operator                     | /root                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| games         | x        |    12 |   100 | games                        | /usr/games             | /sbin/nologin  |
| gopher        | x        |    13 |    30 | gopher                       | /var/gopher            | /sbin/nologin  |
| ftp           | x        |    14 |    50 | FTP User                     | /var/ftp               | /sbin/nologin  |
| nobody        | x        |    99 |    99 | Nobody                       | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| dbus          | x        |    81 |    81 | System message bus           | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| usbmuxd       | x        |   113 |   113 | usbmuxd user                 | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| rpc           | x        |    32 |    32 | Rpcbind Daemon               | /var/lib/rpcbind       | /sbin/nologin  |
| rtkit         | x        |   499 |   499 | RealtimeKit                  | /proc                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| avahi-autoipd | x        |   170 |   170 | Avahi IPv4LL Stack           | /var/lib/avahi-autoipd | /sbin/nologin  |
| vcsa          | x        |    69 |    69 | virtual console memory owner | /dev                   | /sbin/nologin  |
| abrt          | x        |   173 |   173 |                              | /etc/abrt              | /sbin/nologin  |
| rpcuser       | x        |    29 |    29 | RPC Service User             | /var/lib/nfs           | /sbin/nologin  |
| nfsnobody     | x        | 65534 | 65534 | Anonymous NFS User           | /var/lib/nfs           | /sbin/nologin  |
| haldaemon     | x        |    68 |    68 | HAL daemon                   | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| ntp           | x        |    38 |    38 |                              | /etc/ntp               | /sbin/nologin  |
| apache        | x        |    48 |    48 | Apache                       | /var/www               | /sbin/nologin  |
| saslauth      | x        |   498 |    76 | Saslauthd user               | /var/empty/saslauth    | /sbin/nologin  |
| postfix       | x        |    89 |    89 |                              | /var/spool/postfix     | /sbin/nologin  |
| gdm           | x        |    42 |    42 |                              | /var/lib/gdm           | /sbin/nologin  |
| pulse         | x        |   497 |   496 | PulseAudio System Daemon     | /var/run/pulse         | /sbin/nologin  |
| sshd          | x        |    74 |    74 | Privilege-separated SSH      | /var/empty/sshd        | /sbin/nologin  |
| tcpdump       | x        |    72 |    72 |                              | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| mysql         | x        |    27 |    27 | MySQL Server                 | /var/lib/mysql         | /bin/bash      |
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+

方法二:

通过mysqlimport进行导入

注意:导入的文件名必须和表名一样

[root@Admin ~]# cp /etc/passwd /tmp/password
[root@Admin ~]# mysqlimport --fields-terminated-by=':' --lines-terminated-by='\n' login '/tmp/password'
login.password: Records: 34  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

# 说明:文件不需处理, 通过--fields-terminated-by=':' 和 --lines-terminated-by='\n' 将passwd文件中的冒号替换为制表符
mysql> select * from password;
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+
| username      | password | uid   | gid   | comment                      | homedir                | shell          |
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+
| root          | x        |     0 |     0 | root                         | /root                  | /bin/bash      |
| bin           | x        |     1 |     1 | bin                          | /bin                   | /sbin/nologin  |
| daemon        | x        |     2 |     2 | daemon                       | /sbin                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| adm           | x        |     3 |     4 | adm                          | /var/adm               | /sbin/nologin  |
| lp            | x        |     4 |     7 | lp                           | /var/spool/lpd         | /sbin/nologin  |
| sync          | x        |     5 |     0 | sync                         | /sbin                  | /bin/sync      |
| shutdown      | x        |     6 |     0 | shutdown                     | /sbin                  | /sbin/shutdown |
| halt          | x        |     7 |     0 | halt                         | /sbin                  | /sbin/halt     |
| mail          | x        |     8 |    12 | mail                         | /var/spool/mail        | /sbin/nologin  |
| uucp          | x        |    10 |    14 | uucp                         | /var/spool/uucp        | /sbin/nologin  |
| operator      | x        |    11 |     0 | operator                     | /root                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| games         | x        |    12 |   100 | games                        | /usr/games             | /sbin/nologin  |
| gopher        | x        |    13 |    30 | gopher                       | /var/gopher            | /sbin/nologin  |
| ftp           | x        |    14 |    50 | FTP User                     | /var/ftp               | /sbin/nologin  |
| nobody        | x        |    99 |    99 | Nobody                       | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| dbus          | x        |    81 |    81 | System message bus           | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| usbmuxd       | x        |   113 |   113 | usbmuxd user                 | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| rpc           | x        |    32 |    32 | Rpcbind Daemon               | /var/lib/rpcbind       | /sbin/nologin  |
| rtkit         | x        |   499 |   499 | RealtimeKit                  | /proc                  | /sbin/nologin  |
| avahi-autoipd | x        |   170 |   170 | Avahi IPv4LL Stack           | /var/lib/avahi-autoipd | /sbin/nologin  |
| vcsa          | x        |    69 |    69 | virtual console memory owner | /dev                   | /sbin/nologin  |
| abrt          | x        |   173 |   173 |                              | /etc/abrt              | /sbin/nologin  |
| rpcuser       | x        |    29 |    29 | RPC Service User             | /var/lib/nfs           | /sbin/nologin  |
| nfsnobody     | x        | 65534 | 65534 | Anonymous NFS User           | /var/lib/nfs           | /sbin/nologin  |
| haldaemon     | x        |    68 |    68 | HAL daemon                   | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| ntp           | x        |    38 |    38 |                              | /etc/ntp               | /sbin/nologin  |
| apache        | x        |    48 |    48 | Apache                       | /var/www               | /sbin/nologin  |
| saslauth      | x        |   498 |    76 | Saslauthd user               | /var/empty/saslauth    | /sbin/nologin  |
| postfix       | x        |    89 |    89 |                              | /var/spool/postfix     | /sbin/nologin  |
| gdm           | x        |    42 |    42 |                              | /var/lib/gdm           | /sbin/nologin  |
| pulse         | x        |   497 |   496 | PulseAudio System Daemon     | /var/run/pulse         | /sbin/nologin  |
| sshd          | x        |    74 |    74 | Privilege-separated SSH      | /var/empty/sshd        | /sbin/nologin  |
| tcpdump       | x        |    72 |    72 |                              | /                      | /sbin/nologin  |
| mysql         | x        |    27 |    27 | MySQL Server                 | /var/lib/mysql         | /bin/bash      |
+---------------+----------+-------+-------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------+
34 rows in set (0.00 sec)

例三

把用户登录系统的信息存储到数据库里

需要显示如下:

select username 用户名, tty 登录终端, ip 来源IP from login;

创建数据库

mysql> create table login( username varchar(40), tty varchar(40), ip varchar(50));

处理登录数据并存储在文件里

[root@Admin ~]# last -f /var/log/wtmp |sed -r '/^reboot|^wtmp/d' |awk '{print $1"\t"$2"\t"$3}'|tee /tmp/login

存储

  • 方法一:
    mysql> load data local infile '/tmp/login' into table login;
  • 方法二:
    [root@Admin ~]# mysqlimport login '/tmp/login'

查看结果

mysql> select username 用户名, tty 登录终端, ip 来源IP from login;
+-----------+--------------+---------------+
| 用户名    | 登录终端     | 来源IP        |
+-----------+--------------+---------------+
| root      | pts/2        | 192.168.1.131 |
| root      | pts/1        | 192.168.1.131 |
| root      | pts/1        | 192.168.1.131 |
| root      | pts/0        | :0.0          |
| root      | tty1         | :0            |
| root      | pts/0        | :0.0          |
| root      | tty1         | :0            |
|           |              |               |
+-----------+--------------+---------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注