Glusterfs 分布式存储安装部署

By | 2017年8月8日
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Glusterfs 分布式存储部署 是存储当中可以选择的一种 现在很多虚拟化 云计算都在用软件存储 例如 ceph

Glusterfs 等等 今天我们部署一下Glusterfs环境

GlusterFs安装

环境信息:

         Glusterfs-01                   10.20.0.200
         Glusterfs-02                   10.20.0.201
         Glusterfs-03                   10.20.0.202

 

 

 

硬盘各一块 8G 测试 /dev/sdb

服务器版本信息

# cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS release 6.6 (Final)

# uname -r
2.6.32-504.el6.x86_64

 

软件下载地址

http://download.gluster.org/pub/gluster/glusterfs/3.4/3.4.6/CentOS/epel-6.6/x86_64

依赖包安装

直接用Yum安装 每台都需要安装

# yum -y install libibverbs librdmacm xfsprogs nfs-utils rpcbind  libaio liblvm2app lvm2-devel

软件安装

安装服务器端软件包

glusterfs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-api-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-cli-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-fuse-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-libs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-server-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm

安装客户端软件包

glusterfs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-fuse-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
glusterfs-libs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm

磁盘配置

磁盘分区:

EXT4格式化工具目前最大支持16TB

使用parted进行磁盘分区

分区格式化
每个服务器上面都需要至少添加一块硬盘 我们这边是用的1块8G硬盘 现在每台都格式化

# mkfs.ext4 -L /brick1 /dev/sdb
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
/dev/sdb is entire device, not just one partition!
Proceed anyway? (y,n) y
Filesystem label=/brick1
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
524288 inodes, 2097152 blocks
104857 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2147483648
64 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632

Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 39 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

自动挂载分区

# vim /etc/fstab 
LABEL=/brick1  /brick1 ext4  defaults 0 0

mount文件系统

# mkdir /brick1
# mount -L /brick1 /brick1/
# df -kh
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                       47G  759M   44G   2% /
tmpfs                 491M     0  491M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             477M   28M  425M   6% /boot
/dev/sdb              7.8G   18M  7.4G   1% /brick1

基础测试包安装 性能测试包

工具软件
Atop,iperf,sysstat

dd,lozone,fio,postmark

工具安装

#rpm -ivh http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/fedora/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm

yum install sysstat

Gcc -o postmark postmark-1.52.c

有些可以用yum安装

安装GlusterFS软件包

每台创建存放软件的目录  我们目前安装的是3.4.6的版本

#mdkir /home/tools/3.4.6 -p
#cd /home/tools/3.4.6
# ll
total 2164
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1027320 Oct  4 11:13 glusterfs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   66680 Oct  4 11:13 glusterfs-api-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  108872 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-cli-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   88452 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-fuse-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  124288 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-geo-replication-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  227900 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-libs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   50128 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-rdma-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  504744 Oct  4 11:14 glusterfs-server-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm

直接rpm安装

# rpm -ivh *.rpm
warning: glusterfs-3.4.6-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 4ab22bb3: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:glusterfs-libs         ########################################### [ 13%]
   2:glusterfs              ########################################### [ 25%]
   3:glusterfs-fuse         ########################################### [ 38%]
   4:glusterfs-cli          ########################################### [ 50%]
   5:glusterfs-server       ########################################### [ 63%]
   6:glusterfs-geo-replicati########################################### [ 75%]
   7:glusterfs-api          ########################################### [ 88%]
   8:glusterfs-rdma         ########################################### [100%]

安装成功启动GlusterFS

# service glusterd start
Starting glusterd:                                         [  OK  ]
# chkconfig glusterd on

组建集群扩展

在GlusterFS-01服务器上面操作 选择10.20.0.200 作为当前集群节点

添加另外两台服务器

# gluster peer probe 10.20.0.201
peer probe: success
# gluster peer probe 10.20.0.202
peer probe: success

GlusterFS-01服务器查看添加状态

# gluster peer status
Number of Peers: 2

Hostname: 10.20.0.201
Port: 24007
Uuid: c4d9edfd-d6ae-4628-8ab3-5a9fbb5f18fc
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

Hostname: 10.20.0.202
Port: 24007
Uuid: c0b425bb-a7b4-4dae-bc19-ea6031bf02b9
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

GlusterFS-02服务器查看添加状态

# gluster peer status
Number of Peers: 2

Hostname: 10.20.0.200
Port: 24007
Uuid: 7ad4db05-ee75-44e6-8213-e58072b62d33
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

Hostname: 10.20.0.202
Uuid: c0b425bb-a7b4-4dae-bc19-ea6031bf02b9
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

GlusterFS-03服务器查看添加状态

# gluster peer status
Number of Peers: 2

Hostname: 10.20.0.200
Port: 24007
Uuid: 7ad4db05-ee75-44e6-8213-e58072b62d33
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

Hostname: 10.20.0.201
Uuid: c4d9edfd-d6ae-4628-8ab3-5a9fbb5f18fc
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

表示成功

如果添加不成功 排除错误:

1,每台服务器是否能否Ping通

2,防火墙是否关闭iptables selinux

3,glusterd服务是否启动成功

创建卷

  • 确定创建卷的类型
  • 确定创建卷的brick列表
  • 确实创建卷的网络类型(TCP/RDMA)

Gluster volume create创建卷

在GlusterFS-01服务器上面操作 可以任选一台

# gluster volume create dht-vol1 10.20.0.200:/brick1/b1 10.20.0.201:/brick1/b2 10.20.0.202:/brick1/b
3
volume create: dht-vol1: success: please start the volume to access data

(1)distribute volume:分布式卷,文件通过hash算法分布到brick server上,这种卷是glusterfs的基础和最大特点;

(2)stripe volume:条带卷,类似RAID0,条带数=brick server数量,文件分成数据块以Round Robin方式分布到brick server上,并发粒度是数据块,大文件性能高;

(3)replica volume:镜像卷,类似RAID1,镜像数=brick server数量,所以brick server上文件数据相同,构成n-way镜像,可用性高;

(4)distribute stripe volume:分布式条带卷,brick server数量是条带数的倍数,兼具distribute和stripe卷的特点;

(5)distribute replica volume:分布式镜像卷,brick server数量是镜像数的倍数,兼具distribute和replica卷的特点

查看卷状态信息

# gluster volume info
 
Volume Name: dht-vol1
Type: Distribute
Volume ID: 7d947cf1-c743-477e-a28d-7d030572b655
Status: Created
Number of Bricks: 3
Transport-type: tcp
Bricks:
Brick1: 10.20.0.200:/brick1/b1
Brick2: 10.20.0.201:/brick1/b2
Brick3: 10.20.0.202:/brick1/b3

启动卷

# gluster volume start dht-vol1
volume start: dht-vol1: success

客户端挂载卷

# mkdir /data

# mount -t glusterfs 10.20.0.200:/dth-vol1 /data/

# df -kh
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
47G 1.1G 44G 3% /
tmpfs 491M 0 491M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 477M 28M 425M 6% /boot
/dev/sdb 7.8G 19M 7.4G 1% /brick1
10.20.0.200:/dth-vol1
24G 55M 22G 1% /data

注:这个默认卷类型 是3块盘 加起来的容量

测试 创建replic 复制卷

#gluster volume create rep1  replica 3 10.20.0.200:/brick1/b20 10.20.0.201:/brick1/b20 10.20.0.202:/brick1/b20

客户端挂载

# mkdir /data1
# mount -t glusterfs 10.20.0.200:/rep1 /data1
# df -kh
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                       47G  1.1G   44G   3% /
tmpfs                 491M     0  491M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             477M   28M  425M   6% /boot
/dev/sdb              7.8G   19M  7.4G   1% /brick1
10.20.0.200:/dth-vol1
                       24G   55M   22G   1% /data
10.20.0.200:/rep1     7.8G   19M  7.4G   1% /data1

注:replic类型 是复制模式 相当于raid1  一块盘的容量

常规命令

添加磁盘

gluster volume add-brick dht-vol1 10.20.0.200:/brick1/b1

rebalance 同步数据
gluster volume rebalance dht-vol1 start

删除磁盘

gluster volume remove-brick dht-vol1 10.20.0.200:/brick1/b1 
gluster volume rebalance dht-vol1 start

删除卷

先停止 在删除

# gluster volume stop dht-vol1
Stopping volume will make its data inaccessible. Do you want to continue? (y/n) y
volume stop: dht-vol1: success

# gluster volume delete dht-vol1
Deleting volume will erase all information about the volume. Do you want to continue? (y/n) y
volume delete: dht-vol1: success

# gluster volume info
No volumes present

集群扩展
增加节点
gluster peer probe IP/主机名

删除节点
gluster peer detach IP/主机名

节点状态
gluster peer status

 

GlusterFS典型故障处理:

1,恢复节点配置信息

故障现象:其中一个节点配置信息不正确

故障模拟:

删除server2部分配置信息

配置信息位置:/var/lib/glusterd/

修复方法

触发自修复:通过Gluster工具同步配置信息

gluster volume sync server1 all

 

2,复制卷数据不一致

故障现象:双副本卷数据出现不一致

故障模拟:删除其中一个brick数据

修复方法

新mount一下

 

3 复制卷的目录删除了

如何解决

修复方法:

先替换brick

#gluster volume replace-brick bbs_img 10.20.0.201:/brick1/share2 10.20.0.201:/brick1/share start

#gluster volume replace-brick bbs_img 10.20.0.201:/brick1/share2 10.20.0.201:/brick1/share commit

 

还原的时候注意会报错

解决办法

rm -rf /data/share2/.glusterfs
setfattr -x  trusted.glusterfs.volume-id /data/share2
setfattr -x trusted.gfid /data/share2

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